9 Best Programming Languages in 2021

Programming-Languages

What are the most popular programming languages today? Program development is constantly changing. New languages designed according to current technological trends continue emerging, and the ones that are popular today may become obsolete tomorrow. Some languages have remained popular over the years and do not seem likely to lose their position in every index in the foreseeable future. In this article, we will consider the best programming languages in 2021.

  1. JavaScript
  2. Python
  3. C/C++/C#
  4. Kotlin
  5. Go
  6. Java
  7. Scala
  8. TypeScript
  9. Ruby

JavaScript

JavaScript has continued to be in great demand. According to Stack Overflow, JS has remained the most popular language for program development among developers for eight years in a row. The language takes its place of honor because it is used on almost all websites as a client-side language, so almost every website uses it. JavaScript is used in the front-end, and it can also be used in the back-end via Node.js. It is often selected by novice program developers as their first language, as it has easy, highly flexible syntax.

With JS you can add interaction and enhance the dynamic content display. The typical functions of JavaScript go far beyond improving the responsiveness of websites, and it is widely implemented in web program development, the gaming industry, and mobile app creation. It has been used to create such well-known services as Facebook, Twitter, Gmail and YouTube. Nevertheless, JS possesses some drawbacks, which led to Typescript, CoffeeScript, Flow languages emergence.

Python

Python is a popular language with dynamic semantics. It is often taught at colleges since it’s simple to understand because of its beginner-friendly structure. This language is widely used for program development, by data analysts, as well as in recent technologies such as real and simulated robotics, virtual and augmented reality, AI, ML.

Techies say Python’s simplicity is the reason why it is such a well-liked language. People with basic computing knowledge or even non-technical specialists can learn, read and practice. In addition, this skill is sought after by tech companies due to the great client demand on the market. Due to its uncomplicated nature, non–software engineering specialists can handle it, but there are not many specialists with profound skills.

C/C++/C#

Program development languages from the C family are widely used in the gaming industry. With a rich selection of different computer games that can cater to users’ most sophisticated needs, gaming is thriving. From arcade to strategy and RPG games, there’s something for every gamer’s taste. So, software companies specializing in games continuously seek program developers who have a solid knowledge of the C language family.

C is also used in low-level systems, kernel programming and operating systems. There are plenty of other languages that were influenced by C, so it is a good idea to start learning program development using C.

C++ was created as an extension to C. It is mostly used in the gaming sphere, graphical user interface, and desktop app creation, as well as during software program development contests and challenges.

C# is a language that was created on the basis of C by Microsoft, with the aim to build new Windows applications. It can also be used in the mobile sphere on the Xamarin platform. It is beneficial to learn C# for Virtual Reality program development, and it is used in two-dimensional and three-dimensional game engineering.

Kotlin

Kotlin was created in pursuit of a language better than Java. As a result, according to program developers, Kotlin has more robust features than Java. For example, they consider it to be more lightweight, faster to write, and more concise. A piece of code written in Kotlin takes less space, and consequently, has fewer possible errors.

At the same time, Kotlin is fully compatible with Java supporting all its libraries and other tools. Kotlin is relatively easy to learn, and it can be implemented for both web and desktop app creation. It’s predicted it’ll be a decent replacement option for Java, and that it will soon take over Java’s market share.

Go

Go (Golang) was initially created by Google developers to manage of API, web applications. Its ultimate target was to streamline complex program development processes. It has a simple syntax that is easy to read, code and maintain. It often takes only a few days to create decent code in Golang, as it is relatively quick to compile and execute.

Along with high efficiency, it offers such valuable features as garbage collecting, dynamic and safe typing and a multi-thread option. It is often used for building web apps, and program developing across large-scale network environments and big distributed systems. Thanks to the concurrency option, it is possible to work with multiprocessor architectures and scale heavy-weight applications.

With a slew of guidebooks, instructions and libraries, programmers can find all the help they need. The code can be tested for more stable and reliable characteristics. However, Google has decided to create Go 2, which will be even better built and more functional than its predecessor.

javascript-python-c-kotlin-go

Java

Despite the discouraging forecasts, Java still ranks highly among other languages in the community of program developers. It has syntax that’s similar to C++ and resembles natural languages used by humans. Primarily created for embedded network applications, it is now often used in modular program creation, Android programming, reusable coding, creation of scientific applications, and web and desktop apps.

The popular language is in great demand thanks to its rich technical characteristics. For instance, it offers the benefits of portability, as it can be used on all kinds of platforms. It is not expensive to write and maintain any Java-based program, which can help avoid a possible waste of resources. Thanks to the security manager and the absence of pointers, it has great characteristics in terms of safety regulations.

Such smart features as memory allocating allow for the safe preservation of data and its easy restoration. With a multithreading option, Java has the ability to handle multiple operations simultaneously. The garbage collector eliminates unused items automatically.

Scala

Scala was created to solve problems frequently encountered by software program developers while working with Java. It is easy to master if you have a Java background in software engineering. Scala is used for various program development purposes, from developing web applications of different kinds to handling cutting-edge ML and AI solutions. It is also often implemented for data analysis in data science.

Scala has the best characteristics of Java along with some improved Java features. In Scala, you can find various Java perks, such as its libraries and rich JVM possibilities. And there are abundant new characteristics, such as clearer code, that take up less space than those in Java.

It also offers such characteristics as operator overloading, increased thread safety, and rare null-pointers. With Scala, program developers can create concurrent systems with the help of a built-in multiagent model. Even the name of the language derives from the adjective “scalable”, so this feature — scalability — is one of the major benefits that this language can bring.

TypeScript

Originally, TypeScript was created by Microsoft to resolve JavaScript flaws. Although it’s not a full-fledged language per se, some analysts refer to it as a separate program development language. There are even forecasts that TypeScript will outcompete JS.

Software program developers use TypeScript for adding interaction to pages, to make JS apps both for the client and the server side. Developers can easily convert TypeScript code into JavaScript. However, it has significant advantages over JavaScript.

For example, it has better code structure, a robust type system and a powerful intuitive ecosystem, and it does not require expensive instruments for program creation. Software developers report that the major disadvantage of TypeScript as a fully fledged program development language is its stiff learning curve, so prior experience in writing code is essential for mastering this language. Consequently, the user community of TypeScript is not as large in comparison with JS.

Ruby

Ruby is a relatively new popular program development language that has active support by a friendly user community. Using this language, software can be created quickly, so it is often considered to be the most time-efficient language. It’s mostly used to build web apps, but it can also be used in prototyping and data analytics.

Combined with the Ruby-on-Rails framework, it offers inbuilt security features that protect against hacker attacks. Ruby has extensive program tools and libraries to facilitate the highly productive process. With a metaprogramming feature, the program can be really flexible: it can continue writing code after the program developer on its own, and implement instruments such as introspection and ghost techniques to save on development time.

java-scala-typescript-ruby

Summing Up

When you have to make a decision which language to choose, you have to take into account several parameters. Regarding implementation, some software developers prefer languages designed for system program development, some prefer desktop web development, while others lean toward game and mobile development.

The complexity of a language and its usability features, the desired salary range, and current popular trends are other important factors to consider. It helps to be aware of the dynamics that remain the same throughout the years. Remember that recent trends may not stay the same for too long.

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About the author

Maryia Shapel
Maryia Shapel

As a content writer, Maryia strives to create enlightening blog posts and technical articles based on the latest technology trends and established best practices. Her aim is to tell more about SaM Solutions and promote the company’s expertise.

10 Comments

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  • This was a very meaningful post, so informative and encouraging information, Thank you.

  • Great piece of content! All the points discussed here are fully valid and adds knowledge to readers.
    Thanks for sharing

  • Thank you for your thoughts on the current trends in programming. I especially appreciate that you mentioned Kotlin. It is better than Java. I switched to it several years ago. It’s omitted by a lot of ranking lists, and I think it’s not fair.

  • Thanks for sharing this blog. There are lot of programming languages available today, however, these are among the top that you picked up and are the most popular or widely used languages in most of the software companies across the world. Thanks for sharing this list.

  • Many thanks for sharing this blog post! It is good to know which programming languages are the best to learn in 2021. Especially because I already know a few of them 🙂

  • You should consider adding more languages to the list. What about Dart, Swift? We use them on a regular basis at my work, and I’m sure we’ll continue to do so.

  • I disagree with your description of TypeScript. I would describe it as a subset of JavaScript, not a separate language, since they still have a lot in common.

  • I am currently studying Java at university. After reading your blog post, I’m thinking I might start learning another language in the near future. Not sure which one exactly, but it will definitely be one of the ones from your list.

  • As a front-end software engineer myself, I agree that JavaScript is likely to retain its position at least for the coming decade or more. And, based on my recent experience, I would recommend that aspiring developers master TypeScript as well.

  • I learned a lot from this article, thanks. But I have to admit that some information was a surprise for me. Never thought that Scala and Ruby will make it to this list!

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