Frameworks shape the form of an application, enhance processes with automation and make the work of software engineers easier. There are dozens of frameworks that can assist you on the way to creating a robust application. Keep reading to discover the most popular Java frameworks and their peculiarities.
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What Are Java Frameworks?
Java Frameworks are the bodies of previously created code. With this code, software engineers can enhance application development with the Java programming language. They leave more room for developers so that they can focus on business logic rather than on typical parts of code.
11 Best Java Frameworks
Spring is one of the most widespread Java frameworks and is mostly implemented to develop enterprise-level applications. In contrast with other options, this framework concentrates on a number of areas of application operation and enhances them with a broad spectrum of extra functionalities. Among the benefits of Spring is the employment of web architecture at every level, easy module linking and testing, and services for middleware. A drawback of Spring was that the preparatory procedure was so time-consuming that it caused the necessity of creating something quicker. This was how Spring Boot emerged.
The Spring Boot Java framework was invented with quickness in mind. This way, each new project doesn’t require a prolonged configuration procedure and is more time- and money-efficient. Thanks to automation, with Spring Boot it takes far less time to create and deploy a Java Spring application. Another difference is that Spring concentrates its technical efforts on making Java development flexible, whereas the primary focus of Spring Boot is the reduction of code length to make the development faster and easier. Its beneficial features are: extra inbuilt functionality, simple starting process, the ability to build a self-contained and independently operating application, lots of guidebooks and manuals to study, and an active community of users that can offer you a hand when needed.
Software specialists implement Spring Cloud to centralize the configuration management and take advantage of the safety and robustness of Spring boot at the same time. Being a part of Spring boot, it is known as a configuration server solution that can collaborate with several services and combine them in a single application. Aimed at creating an efficient cloud application, Spring Cloud assists in the building of Java apps enhanced with rich functionalities. With a variety of productive instruments, engineers are able to create an application in a speedy way. It is especially beneficial when deadlines are crucial for meeting project requirements.
Vert.X is an open-source Java framework that offers great opportunities for development. Due to its reactivity, it responds to every change and event that happens in the system, which is connected to its quality of asynchronicity. This quality helps create a Java application without blocking and multithreading. It is a multilingual framework and can function with different programming languages equally well. Thanks to its polyglotism, it became extremely popular in the engineering community.
The high-performance characteristics of Vert can be explained by its non-blocking features. It is a perfect tool that grants engineers all the functionalities in the asynchronous regime to enhance the performance of Java programs when they log, monitor, authenticate, connect or carry out other basic actions. This framework is pretty versatile and can be implemented to create software applications of all sizes.
Blade is a self-reliant Java framework that is famous for its elegance, intuitiveness, productiveness and rapidity. The creators of this instrument had the primary aim in mind to build a high-performance framework that is so easy to learn that one day will be enough to get the feel of it and start using it successfully. To use Blade, you will not require a lot of space and resources. With powerful inbuilt security means, its focus is on keeping data private.
Due to its high flexibility, it can work with a variety of plug-in extensions and resources. The main advantage of Blade is its user-friendliness, mainly as a result of its simple syntactical structure, which makes it easy to pick up quickly by people with different technical backgrounds. Other significant characteristics include clear and concise coding and modularity, giving users the ability to select components at their reasonable discretion.
Dropwizard is a lightweight instrument that can play the roles of both a Java framework and a library. It is often preferred by coders due to its reliability, productiveness, high operability and speed. It combines a number of Java libraries and helps programmers focus on their tasks without distractions and therefore accomplish their objectives at a quicker pace. With inbuilt tools to facilitate good configurations and performance of the system, this framework is aimed at providing the stability needed to get an application ready for production.
Thanks to these robust features, it’s easy to create a ready-for-service application quickly and efficiently. A lot of developers agree that this framework can be especially beneficial for the building of Java microservices. It is considered a user-friendly tool, as it is not difficult to master if you have proficiency in Java coding and are well familiar with the logic of this language.
MyBatis is an open-source Java framework that offers the support for custom SQL and various mapping relations. It combines objects and stored procedures with the help of an XML descriptor or annotations. It is a prominent alternative option to any other Java framework.
The most significant advantages of MyBatis are the steep learning curve, easily maintainable and manageable system, automatic mapping relationships, implementation of tags and high flexibility. What’s more, it offers built-in table or query caching and enhanced productivity. It has robust database functionality including stored procedures, views and queries of various complexity and characteristics.
The Micronaut Java framework reduces the required amount of memory that programs use while running. It is a top-notch framework that allows the building of microservices quickly and easily. It is mainly used in microservices development, and is enhanced with such features as improved start time and reduced memory. Features that, as a rule, are brought about during run time are computed earlier at the compiling stage. With inbuilt testing opportunities, you can improve the quality of your products.
Along with several functionalities that are common in other Java frameworks, Micronaut offers some appealing innovations as well. Among them you will find first-class client- and server-oriented support for reactive software programming. Other valuable features make it the perfect tool for building an amazing application, especially in the sphere of Java native cloud computing. Moreover, it provides support for several service discovery instruments and operates greatly with various distributed request tracing tools.
Quarkus is a full-stack framework that was created for compiling and optimization purposes. It offers automatic generation of resources, such as creation and deployment of images with no manual file creation. Quarkus enables Java developers to build a great application for the cloud environment. Based on the best Java libraries, its objective is to offer engineers a robust framework that can work with a broader array of application architectures. It is totally open-source, so it welcomes new contributions that make it even more functional.
Other peculiar features of Quarkus include trouble-free coding process thanks to its robust instruments, libraries, add-ons, etc. As a native Kubernetes solution, it allows users to deploy applications easily without the necessity of diving deep into the understanding of all the platform’s intricacies. As a comprehensive, user-friendly Java framework, it leverages many popular libraries. In addition, it combines imperative coding with reactive coding, thus making it extremely adaptable to any developer’s taste.
8. Apache Spark
Apache Spark is an open-source Java framework that is perfect for processing large data volumes. It makes use of in-memory caching and optimizes the performance of queries with the aim of increased speed of working with reams of data disseminated on different equipment. These abilities make it the perfect tool for AI and ML projects, where all the attention is devoted to the analysis of heavy-load data sets. User-friendly API helps engineers streamline the performance of their everyday tasks, making them quicker and easier.
This tool is used by IT enterprises, financial and banking institutions, governmental bodies, and the telecom and gaming industries. Among its major advantages are its swiftness due to the specific memory storage that makes information easily attainable. Customers can also enjoy real-time big data processing and the ability to identify the relationships between users and objects in order to generate new information. Another positive side of using Apache Spark is that it offers the possibilities of both storage and analysis in one place.
JHipster is a Java platform that is focused on the development, generation and deployment of web applications, with the implementation of such technologies as Spring Boot + Angular, React and View. Its advantages are its open-source nature, support of several frontend languages, and inbuilt management features such as email verifying and password resetting. This tool offers rich microservices architectures.
In addition, JHipster creates lots of code with multiple libraries that may be new to you, so it is better to study the basics of these libraries to avoid possible problems. Thanks to the active community of users, you can get full-fledged comprehensive documents, which comprise a well-supplied assembly of all the details that concern IT infrastructures. All this data can be further used by the teams for better process execution, more efficient operations, gaining more knowledge, and outlining the steps for rectifying defects. With this instrument, you can build full-featured Java projects that are secure and possess a high level of responsiveness.
MicroProfile offers community-based specifications elaborated with the aim to assist Java software engineers with building architectures for enterprise native cloud microservices. Its main area of implementation is in enterprise apps. It’s also used for continuous enhancements of both components and implementations. MicroProfile gives engineers the opportunity for close collaboration and innovation based on shared interests. It includes several technologies and APIs that comprise an essential foundation for effective delivery of the application across several run times. The main benefits of MicroProfile are focused on the coverage of all the needs of typical enterprise-level Java application building, such as checking health conditions or metrics.
When comparing MicroProfile with Spring Boot for developing microservices, it’s clear that MicroProfile has some distinct advantages. Although not as widespread in the software development community, MicroProfile makes development of cloud infrastructures easier thanks to the discoverability, fault tolerance, and increased security that Spring Boot cannot boast. So, with the universal transition of businesses to the cloud, MicroProfile is still gaining momentum.
Hilla is a framework that combines Spring Boot and TypeScript. With its robust functionality, you can create applications quickly, ensuring high quality at the same time. Due to its open-source nature, you can easily introduce adjustments. Thanks to rich UI features, you get multiple pre-made components that can enhance your visuals.
It offers great flexibility, speed and customization opportunities. Other conspicuous advantages include routing opportunities from the client side, inbuilt security features, and enhanced productivity and scalability that allows to expand your infrastructure according to your company’s growth.
Other Important Java Frameworks:
Apache Struts is another efficient open-source Java framework for building web applications. It is comparatively easy to configure and start using, so it’s often chosen by novice software engineers who begin their career in IT. Moreover, thanks to Struts, the time needed to create a web application is substantially reduced. It is often the preferred framework for developing an enterprise-level application thanks to its rich functionalities. Being a flexible and extendable tool, it provides rich opportunities for introducing changes and adjustments.
The framework supports themes, templates and tags. Available in two versions, it offers plentiful advantages in development. Among the most prominent features, you will find the following: possibility of integration with different Java frameworks for enhanced performance, simplified management options, and, as a result, decreased time spent on software development. In addition, the Struts framework boasts a well-maintained infrastructure and ample documentation.
The Grails Java framework is often used for building Agile applications. It is especially widespread in the sphere of e-commerce shops. Software engineers often choose this framework because it lets them focus on the job without having to devote lots of time to setting up configurations of the framework. For any Java professional, it’s easy to grasp the logic of the Grails framework and use it effectively in everyday work. It acts as an exclusive development environment for developers.
Moreover, coders can create their own plug-ins for the sake of extension and enhancement of the Grails framework, which is especially advantageous when they need additional functionality. It also gives them access to a variety of available plug-ins that are offered by the active community. Grails allows programmers to use more compact and concise code with the aid of the Groovy language. In addition, its syntactical capabilities of high congruence with Java facilitate improvement in developer performance.
Hibernate is a stable and light Java framework that can contact multiple other databases. It is easily scalable, configurable and modifiable. It is highly productive and portable with high-functioning instruments and tools that provide smooth user experience. As a robust object-relational mapping framework, it enables stable communication of Java and RDBMS. It provides a framework that overcomes Java mismatch issues and aims to offer more endurance to the system.
It is an open-source Java framework with speedy performance because of its internal use of cache. Software engineers no longer have to create database-specific queries, as Hibernate allows the generation of database-independent queries. It offers the automatic creation of tables, so no manual interference is required.
15. JSF (Java Server Faces)
JSF is another Java framework mainly focused on the building of web apps. It plays an important role in the simplification of the development process by providing a component-focused method to create Java web UIs. With plenty of UI components that can be reused later in a server application, it has become appealing to a wide audience of Java software engineers. This solution combines several technologies so that coders could develop UI with no in-depth expertise in any one technology.
Other advantages of JSF include drag-and-drop graphical features, abundant libraries, simple frontend instruments, improved compatibility and efficiency, and enriched user experience. This framework is primarily based on components and has architectural characteristics that help define differences between logical and representative features of the application. Thanks to Java Server Faces, Java specialists can build a native application and extend the current Java code with the help of web interfaces.
16. Google Web Toolkit (GWT)
Introduced by Google as a tool for the creation of a powerful application, this Java framework is able to convert Java code to JS code. Thanks to this instrument, developers can create code quicker. If you have codebases, you can carry out their integration with GWT thanks to its compatibility with a number of instruments. In addition, the well-supplied libraries of this framework are full of various widgets that are able to carry out multiple tasks so that even a newbie programmer could use it effortlessly.
GWT is popular among a large community of users, as it allows them to create and optimize the web application even without deep expertise in frontend technologies. The most significant benefits of this framework are its free open-source nature, user-friendliness and the vast field of possibilities in the sphere of UI. What’s more, this tool is compatible with various browsers, can abstract, internationalize, bookmark, and manage history.
Let’s take a look at the Play framework, which is known as a stable and secure option and can boast high reliability and scalability features. It is often chosen as a framework for projects in start-ups, medium-sized and large companies. Thanks to its rich Java environment, you can use lots of libraries, and implement the majority of them in Play. It offers robust features that allow engineers to build a compact application for PCs, laptops, and mobile gadgets.
The objective of the Play framework was to make the work of software engineers more efficient and productive. It offers such robust technical features as high performance, flexibility, resilience, and agility. Thanks to static typing, the system identifies the majority of mistakes in the course of the compiling procedure. Being one of the most effective frameworks on the market, it provides the technical functionalities that let engineers carry out workflow refreshment when needed and implement immediate changes off the cuff. Special inbuilt instruments allow users to conduct tests to ensure the high quality of the program.
Vaadin acts as an open-source framework for Java that incorporates web elements and robust application instruments. Software engineers can customize its major elements to achieve the best possible functionality of the system both for mobile and desktop applications. The Vaadin flow helps to establish contact between clients and servers and provide routing functions.
With this groundbreaking method, software engineers can focus better on visual characteristics for the ultimate user experience of the application. In addition, this framework offers other worthwhile UX features and high-quality protection to make your work more secure. More than forty special user interface elements help create apps in a quicker and more reliable way.
Wicket is another Java and component-focused web framework that prioritizes the simplified creation of web interfaces with the help of definite patterns. Thanks to Wicket’s technical features, components are capable of retrieving data, and converting and storing it after receiving events. It is lightweight, which allows the quick and trouble-free building of applications. It is often considered to be ultrafast and an easy choice, which also provides great cybersecurity features.
What else makes Wicket so powerful? Firstly, it is fully open-source and you can extend and customize the code however you please. So, in case you find that an out-of-the-box solution doesn’t satisfy all your requirements, you can adjust it to your needs. Furthermore, Wicket is able to conduct unit testing for the frontend using only Java coding and not involving additional libraries.
The right framework is important for software development. It will influence the work of a software developer immensely, as it dictates the structures of a Java application and, as a result, forms the essence of software programming. To select the best option, one should convey comparative analysis based on their characteristics. For a successful career as a software developer, it is great to know several frameworks.
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Which framework is better for Java?
To choose the framework that is right for you, consider such criteria as technical features, community support, license, security and documentation.
Is Java used in the backend?
Yes, Java is a programming language that is used for back end programming.
How many Java frameworks are there?
Currently, you can choose among more than thirty Java frameworks.